Archive for the ‘Business Intelligence’ Category

Identifying Things (“What”)

May 4, 2017

This is the second post in a series of posts about how to identify entities in data sources that can readily be classified as belonging to each of the 6BI Business Object Categories (BOCs): Parties, Things, Activities, Events, Locations and Motivators.  The first post in the series (on Parties, the “Who” aspect) can be found at ‎.

The Things BOC identifies What the concepts and objects are that are produced and consumed by parties.  Data element and data element collection names you may encounter that belong to the Things BOC include but are not limited to names in the following table[i].  The list gives you a hint of what kind of names to look for in putting together a 6BI Analytic Schema for enabling your data to answer business questions.

For the purposes of 6BI the first decomposition of Things is between Product and Payment.  Products are also further decomposed into Good and Service.  Goods are tangible material products for which consumers make payments, and services are products provided primarily by human or human-like labor.  Products are also quite often hierarchical and the names used for each level are Things BOC names in their own right.  These names can be logical such as Class, Category, and Type for example. Or can be physical such as Assembly, Component, and Container.  Look for these words, or ones like them, in conjunction with other words that more clearly designate them as classification levels of a product, such as Asset_Type or Vehicle_Assembly.  Products and Payments represent what is exchanged in a transaction and are differentiated by the direction in which they flow.  Products flow from provider to consumer, and Payments flow from consumer to provider.  Quite often the difference between a Product and a Payment is obvious, but sometimes it’s not.  This is especially true when transactions are “in kind” and it is not obvious which, if either thing, represents the “money”.  One rule of thumb is to always remember who the “first party”[ii] in your analysis and which side of their ledger you are analyzing.  The first party is for “whom” the analysis is done or “who” the analysis is intended to benefit.  If you are analyzing their receivables side then the inflow is always a payment and the outflow a product.  If you are analyzing their payables side then the opposite is true, inflows are product types and outflows are payment types.

Potentially the Things BOC can be identified by more data store names than any other BOC because we as humans often designate all phenomena as things.  In information systems however it is always more useful to refer to the instances of the Things BOC as products or payments.  We use the term “Things” for this category of business objects so that we remember to look at both sides of “what” is being exchanged in a transaction, and not be content to only consider the product alone.  There are simply so many things in the real world but we must concentrate on “how” (see the Activities BOC post) they flow if we need to measure their value to a party and assess a party’s contribution to that value.

A Definition can also be a product. This is true when used to represent the meaning of that which parties (individuals and organizations) produce or consume.  It doesn’t matter what is defined.  It can be a party, a location, an activity, an event, a motivator or anything.  If the definition itself is manipulated (i.e. produced or consumed by a party) then it is a product, and thus a thing.  We can speak about the “Definition of the customer” for example.  Customer is clearly a member of the Parties BOC when it comes to analyzing data content for understanding performance for example.  But the definition itself (i.e. What a customer is) is a product of a metadata system.  If you need to analyze, normalize and rationalize the consistency of various definitions of customer you need to treat these definitions as things and not as parties.  That is, they are products of the system associated with a provider and a consumer.

The customer can have multiple definitions, but each separate definition must be associated with the customer through some unique combination of location, event, activity and/or motivator.  Those for whom the consistency checking and improving is performed are the parties. However, and this is critical, the definition of what a customer is, so that it can be used consistently to mean the same role played by a party depending on some unique combination of activity, location, event, product, and motivator is itself a product.  As a product, its quality can be controlled and monitored, its accuracy and integrity assessed and its use measured.

[i]  I would like to thank Barry Williams and his excellent Database Answers website for providing many of the table name examples.

[ii] The party from whose perspective the measurements are taken.


Identifying Parties (“Who”)

April 26, 2017

This is the first of a series about how to identify entities in data sources that can be readily classified as belonging to each of the 6BI Business Object Categories (BOCs): Parties, Things, Activities, Events, Locations and Motivators. I will start with Parties.

The Parties BOC (Business Object Category) identifies Who produces or consumes objects and concepts.  Examples of commonly used data element[i] and data element collection[ii] names you may encounter in diverse types of data stores, that can be categorized under the Parties BOC, include but are not limited to those in the table below.[iii] They contain names commonly used to identify entities (e.g. tables in an RDBMS and documents in a DDBMS) and attributes (e.g. columns in tables and fields in documents). The list gives you a hint of what kind of names to look for in putting together a 6BI Analytic Schema for enabling your data to answer business questions.

Telling providers from consumers is important to recognize because it will tell you in which direction the product flows and in which direction the payment flows.  Knowing this provides the basis for profitability and resource use efficiencies. Producing parties include such names as Producer, Provider, Seller, Supplier, Broker, Vendor for example. Examples of consuming party names include Consumer, Payer, Receiver, Buyer, Client, Customer.  A Parties BOC name can also identify third parties such as Obligee, Specialist and Agency.  Parties can be animate (Citizen, Patient) or inanimate (Bureau, Department). They can be collective (Organization) or singular (Person). These are some of the names you should look out for in analyzing source data systems. They can be names of data element collections (e.g. tables) and/or names of data elements (e.g. columns). Generally, they hold data about the object types within the Parties BOC which can then be used in answering the Who interrogative component of any query.  Parties often come in pairs, the parties that produce or provide, and the parties that consume or pay. Thus, it is important that when you discover one or more Parties BOC entity in your source data that you ask the question, “Is this a producer or a consumer”?  Of course, a single entity can be both a producer and a consumer depending primarily on the type of thing being measured and the type of activity that causes it to need to be measured. If a “first-party” (i.e. the party from whose perspective the measurements are taken) pays money in the transaction it will be the “consumer” in the scope of the transaction being analyzed. Otherwise the party is the “producer” in some manner and its performance will be measured by some assessment of relative value between product outflow and money inflow. Quite often both providers and consumers will be assessed in some manner, usually by an Assessor, as a result of the measurements.

With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) the Role that a device plays in producing and consuming data now means that the Parties BOC includes non-traditionally human parties as well. As a matter of fact entities that previously were only considered as part of the Things BOC can now be parties. The concept of a party has gone beyond the traditional definitions of people and organizations but it still, at the end of the day, remains the producer and consumer of data.

[i] Wikipedia defines any unit of data defined for processing as a data element. Since 6BI deals with the meaning of data elements it is generally non-productive to consider any unit smaller than an attribute or field.

[ii] A data element collection is a set of related attributes or fields. Depending on the degree of normalization they are usually co-located in a container called a table or a document.

[iii] I would like to thank Barry Williams and his excellent Database Answers website for providing many of the table name examples.

The 6BI Analytic Schema

April 10, 2017

6BI (Six Basic Interrogatives) was originally an adaptation of the Zachman Framework[i] to the design of data warehouse data stores.  The idea was based on the assumption that a large number of the business questions that always seem to need answering, regardless of industry, are based on Zachman’s primitive interrogatives. One combination or another of these interrogatives: Who, What, Where, When, How and Why always seems to be needed in order to get the answers we are after in business intelligence.  These combinations consist of at least three of the interrogatives, two of which are always Who and What.  At least one, or as often as not, all four of the other interrogatives are needed to complete what we call the Analytic Schema.  An Analytic Schema is not deigned to answer specific queries but instead is structured to represent all the basic aspects of an enterprise so that queries do not need to be known in any great detail in advance.

Each interrogative is associated with an aspect of the enterprise.  In 6BI, aspects are called Business Object Categories (BOC) and they include Parties, Things, Locations, Events, Activities and Motivators.  Many books and articles have been written explaining and expanding the fundamental concept of enterprise aspects, including those by David Hay[ii], Dan Tasker[iii], as well as Zachman himself and others.  Also, see earlier posts and pages on this blog[iv].

The most effective, and recognizable, form of Analytic Schema is a star schema. Each dimension is classified by one and only one BOC, in other words the aspects determine the type of each dimension.  This classification of dimensions into BOCs already begins to tell us the role each aspect will play in queries built from the schema.  Each BOC is represented by at least one dimension.  The number of actual dimensions classified under each BOC does not matter but it is important to know type of each dimension.  All the dimensions of all types link to the same set of facts.  Figure 1 shows what a 6BI Analytic Schema looks like.

Figure 1. The 6BI Analytic Schema.

The Analytic Schema is a conceptual schema and real world star schemas quite often do not explicitly represent the conceptual nature of 6BI but are physical schemas designed to support a set of queries addressing specific business requirements.  However, it is not generally too difficult to parse and sort the attributes of star schema dimensions into the six categories needed for 6BI.  Difficulties occur with dimension attributes that tend to defy categorization.  For example, is a certain attribute a component of the When or the How interrogative?  This is especially true when we consider the real world information trade-offs that are often needed between events and activities for effective decision making.  Does the event drive the activity or does the activity drive the event?  Something more just correlation is often needed.  Also what about the motivators?

In 6BI Parties and Things have no direct dependency on each other and have no non-intermediated association with each other.  From a data modeling perspective, this means that a Party does not reference (i.e. has no foreign key to) a Thing, and a Thing does not reference (i.e. has no foreign key to) a Party.  This is very important, mainly because of the implicit role of the Who interrogative.  It is “the Who”[v] of the Analytic Schema for which answers need to be found.  Parties are responsible for the results using Things, but those results only have value if placed in a framework of Locations, Events, Activities and Motivators.  In the semantics of queries built on the Analytic Schema the subject is most often one or more Parties and the object (either direct or indirect) is always one or more Things.  Predicates are composed of the other BOCs and the Facts.  6BI Analytic Schemas can be a framework for creating  queries that are a type of logical proposition called a Quadruple because they are always composed of four parts:  subject,  direct object,  indirect object and predicate.

6BI was originally used to do “logical reverse engineering” of existing operational OLTP databases to sort tables into a set of buckets with each bucket representing one of the BOCs.  The thinking was that underneath all the differences that make each organization and its data unique there is a common logical structure upon which an analyst can start the analysis of the problem space.  This can be a great benefit if one needs to “hit the ground running” so to speak.  My experience (25 years and counting) has shown this to be the case.  This was useful when my goal was to identify candidate tables in data sources to frame out the Analytic Schema.  Knowing which tables belonged to which BOC was always helpful because it allowed me to see what role the records in this type of table might play in query development.  For example, I would know that tables classified as BOC Location tables were the most likely to have information about where customers and products were located, and where transactions occurred.  It also identifies the “where” dimension of the facts to use for doing such things as calculating the relationship between location and time in, for example, analyzing the optimum combination of store location and store hours.

This “logical reverse engineering” can not only be applied to tables in a relational database (RDBMS), but to documents in a document database (DDBMS), key-value pairs in a key-value store, and two-level maps in a column-family database as well.

Next, we will look at how to align random data structures (tables and documents) with the BOCs of the 6BI Analytic Schema.





[v]Not the British rock band.

The Data Architecture of Business Plans Part 2 – Key Performance Indicators

November 9, 2013

In the first part of this article about the data architecture of business plans, we discussed an industry standard meta-model for modeling business motivation[i].  We started with the four core elements of business plans: End, Means, Influencer, and Assessment.  We identified Desired Result as the type of End that an enterprise intends to maintain, and Goal and Objective as two types of Desired Result.  We also included Measurement as an expression of an Objective. On the Means side we identified Course of Action which represents the approach or plan for configuring some aspect of the enterprise, Strategy as the essential Course of Action for carrying out the enterprise’s plan, and Tactic as the means to implement the Strategy.

An Assessment, we’ve seen, is a judgment about the impact of Influencers on the enterprise’s Desired Results and Courses of Action[ii].  Assessment Elements are the components of an Assessment that link it to individual Desired Results and Courses of Action.  The net effect of an Assessment Element is the identification of a measured Potential Impact[iii].

A Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a type of Assessment that is a judgment about the impact of the difference between two measurements, the Target Expression, associated with a Desired Result and the Result Expression, associated with a Course of Action.

Desired Results

Figure 10 illustrates the relationship between a Desired Result and a Key Performance Indicator.  A Key Performance Indicator has exactly one Target Expression which is based on one and only one Objective which quantifies one and only one Goal.  As we’ve already observed, both Goal and Objective are types of Desired Result.  If the Desired Result is a Goal it may be quantified by one or more Objectives.  Each Objective may be the basis of one or more Target Expressions.  Each Target Expression is a part of one and only one KPI.

Figure 10.  Desired Results and Target Expressions.

2.1-10 Desired Results & KPIs

However, not all Goals are stated in a way that makes them easily quantifiable by an Objective.  When a Goal cannot be quantified by a set of Objectives one of two things is bound to happen.  Either the Goal becomes more or less irrelevant to the operation, productivity or culture of the enterprise and thus its significance is eventually deprecated, or Objectives that quantify it are eventually defined, vetted and socialized.  There is a thin line between Goals and Objectives, as we’ve seen they are really just two types of the same thing, Desired Results.  The difference between them is driven by the fact that we need a way to differentiate between Desired Results that can be measured and those that cannot.  For purposes of performance management we ignore those that cannot be measured.

Courses of Action and Result Expressions

Figure 11 illustrates the relationship between a Course of Action and a Key Performance Indicator.  A Key Performance Indicator has exactly one Result Expression which is based on one and only one Actual Result which is produced by one and only one Business Process which may employ one or more Efforts.  Each Effort is invoked by one and only one Course of Action.  However, a Course of Action may be invoked via one or more Efforts, each of which is used by one and only one Business Process.  Each Business Process may produce one or more Actual Results, each  which may be the basis of one or more Result Expressions. A Result Expression is a part of one and only one KPI.

Figure 11.  Courses of Action and Result Expressions.

2.1-11 Courses of Action & KPIs

It is assumed that the Potential Impact of a KPI can be judged, usually in discrete intervals, along a continuum from very positive or very negative.  What constitutes positive or negative for any KPI is determined by the requirements of the business and is subject to change over time.  This fact is why configuration management of KPIs is important. Without configuration management, the ability to compare not just KPI status and trend values from period to period, but the evolution of the method by which they were calculated can be tracked.  This becomes more important as organizations begin to not only use KPIs to do assessments and influence behavior, but also to judge the effectiveness of the KPIs themselves, their relevance to changing business patterns and their effectiveness in bringing attention to areas that need it.  In this article however we are primarily interested in the design and construction of KPIs and not as much in how they potentially impact and are impacted by various influencers.

The Role of Effort

Figure 12 illustrates the central role that Effort plays in the meta-model of the data architecture of business plans.  A Course of Action, as we saw in Figure 11, may be invoked via one or more Efforts.  The figure also shows that a Desired Result may be supported via one or more Efforts. It shows that a Business Process may employ one or more Efforts.   Finally, a Party, which is either a Person or an Organization, may be a player of one or more Party Roles, one of which then may perform one or more Efforts.

From the perspective of an Effort it is invoked by one and only one Course of Action, in order to achieve one and only one Desired Result.  It is also used by one and only one Business Process while it is performed by one and only one Party Role.

Figure 12. The central role of Effort in the business plans meta-model.

2.1-12 Central Role of Effort

As stated earlier an Influencer is anything that can produce an effect on the enterprise without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command[iv].  As depicted in Figure 13 we see that an Effort may be assessed by one or more Key Performance Indicators in the same way that an Influencer may be assessed by one or more Assessments. Correspondingly, a KPI assesses one and only one Effort, as an Assessment of which it is a subtype, assesses one and only one Influencer.

Figure 13. Key Performance Indicators and Influencers.

2.1-13 KPI & Influencers

Key Performance Indicators

There are many different perspectives from which an organization’s performance can be viewed.  There are also many different aspects in which each perspective on performance can be viewed.  One aspect is that of motivation, or “why” has the performance turned out as it has and how can the organization improve its performance.  At each perspective of the Motivation aspect[v] “why” type questions need to be answered.  Answers to these questions are aided greatly by the assessments of the measurements that indicate the performance of the organization.  These indicators are called performance indicators, and most organizations have a large number of them.  Many of these are recorded because they “always have been” and others simply because they are relatively easy to produce.  In order to provide decision makers with just the right set of performance indicators at the right time, the concept of the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) was developed.  A KPI is not only an indicator of some aspect of performance but it is critical to improving that aspect of performance.  It is also “key” because it can be clearly associated with a perspective of the enterprise.  For example, there are KPIs that assess performance at the Planner perspective, at the Owner perspective, at the Designer or Architect perspective, at the Builder perspective, at the Subcontractor perspective, and even at the Functioning Enterprise perspective[vi].  The higher the perspective is in the enterprise architecture, the more strategic its assessments tend to be.

There are many business performance oriented books and articles that describe techniques for determining which performance indicators are Key Performance Indicators, and a study of how to select the best KPIs is beyond the scope of this article.  Suffice it to say that the process is very specific to both the organization and its industry.  There can be almost an unlimited number of performance indicators in any good sized enterprise.  Not all performance indicators are of equal importance when it comes to assessing the performance of an enterprise.  A performance indicator is said to be “key”, and thus a Key Performance Indicator when it can be demonstrated through measurements, that it is an indicator of the enterprise’s ability to accomplish its goals and objectives through the carrying out of its mission by strategic, tactical and operational means.

In this article we are interested in the data architecture of KPIs.  Figure 14 illustrates the structure of a Key Performance Indicator. Since KPIs are Assessments of Effort and an Effort may be composed of other Efforts, a Key Performance Indicator may also be composed of other Key Performance Indicators.

Figure 14. The Key Performance Indicator meta-model.

2.1-14 KPI Metamodel-A

In the meta-model of the business plans data architecture a Key Performance Indicator always has one each of three (3) expression elements.  These are:

  • Target Expression (aka Target) which is part of one and only one KPI and is based on one and only one Objective.  An Objective may be the basis of more than one Target Expressions however, and thus may be used in more than one KPI.
  • Result Expression (aka Result) which is part of one and only one KPI and is based on one and only one Actual Result.  An Actual Result may be the basis of more than one Result Expressions however, and thus may be used in more than one KPI.
  • Status Expression (aka Score) which is part of one and only one KPI and is used to indicate how the Result Expression compares to the Target Expression.  It uses one  Result Expression and one Target Expression.  Each of which is used in exactly one Status Expression.  It can take the following forms:
    • A Score expressed as a percentage where the Result Expression is divided by the Target Expression, or
    • A Function that returns a normalized value between -1 and 1 where 1 is interpreted as “Result is very good” and -1 is interpreted as “Result is very bad

The Status Expression is often expressed graphically as an indicator using a set of color-coded graphic icons.  For example: red, yellow or green icons to represent the different judgments made by the KPI.  The specific indicator associated with the different states of the Status Expression is determined according to some Scoring Pattern and Banding Method combination, as we shall see shortly.

Figure 14 also shows the other four (4) optional elements of a KPI.  These include:

  • Trend Expression (Trend) which shows the directional change in the Status Expression.  It can either show the change period over period, or be derived by a formula that returns a normalized value between -1 and 1 where 1 is interpreted as “Status is getting a lot better” and -1 is interpreted as “Status is getting a lot worse”.
  • Weight Expression (Weight) which returns the relative weight of the KPI.  If a KPI has a parent KPI you can define the weight to control the contribution of a KPI to its parent. For example, if there are two child KPIs, one weighted at 60% and the other at 40%, the parent KPI would be more influenced by the former than the latter.
  • Time Expression which returns the current time dimension member that is relevant for the KPI.  For example, time can be expressed either as a Point in Time indicating the KPI assesses the performance of an Event, or a duration, the difference between two points in time, to indicate performance assessment over a period of time.
  • Responsible Party who is typically the person or organization responsible for the KPI.  This responsibility can be for maintenance such as changing and updating any of the expression elements of the KPI.  The responsibility can also be accountability for the performance of the enterprise underlying the KPI.  These two responsibilities may or may not belong to the same Party.  If it is the same party then issues of conflict of interest may arise.  Over time, maintenance of KPIs and the Measurements on which they are based is very important.  If KPIs are expected to continue to be relevant and return value to the enterprise they must be adjusted to reflect changing business conditions.

KPI Scoring and Banding

Probably the most common scoring and banding combination for Key Performance Indicators is illustrated by the example in Figures 15 and 16[vii].  This technique is referred to as “Increasing is Better – Actual Values”.   In this method the higher the Score the better, with the Score determined by dividing the actual Result value by the actual Target value and expressing it as a percentage.  Quite often a maximum Score value is set.  Figure 15 illustrates this technique with five (5) component measurements rolled up into one composite measurement.  The composite Score (119.95%) is simply the sum of the component Scores divided by the number of component KPIs (listed under “Measure” in the example below).

Figure 15. An example of an “Increasing is Better – Actual Values” type composite KPI.

2.1-15 Scorecard BAR-02+Comp measure

As illustrated in Figure 16, threshold values are determined for the scoring bands of the KPI (three in this case) labeled “Good”, “Average” and “Poor”.  If the Score is equal to or greater than 100%, it is assessed as “Good” and the Status indicator is a green square, if the Score is less than 100% but equal to or greater than 90% it is assessed as “Average” and the Status indicator is a yellow triangle, and finally if the Score is less than 90% it is assessed as “Poor” and the Status indicator is a red circle. KPIs for which there is no score are shown as white circles.

Trend is calculated by taking the difference between the current period Score and some previous period Score (in this case the previous month).  If the difference is positive, an upward pointing “arrow in a circle” icon is displayed, if the difference is negative the arrow points downward, and if there is no change the circle icon has no arrow.  Each KPI has a name, in this case “Administration” and a description (not shown).  They are grouped into both Program and Strategic Scorecards which can then be incorporated into operational, tactical and strategic dashboards.

Figure 16. An example of a Scorecard with KPI scoring bands.

2.1-16 Scorecard BAR-01

For performance assessment problems requiring more complex calculations, expressions are used instead of raw values when comparing the Result value to the Target value.  This is a technique available in many BI and enterprise performance management (EPM) tools today.  Rather than using the raw Target and Result values to calculate a Score, the results of a Target Expression and a Result Expression are factors in the calculation of a Status Expression.  The two KPIs in Figure 17, though more simple in appearance, are intuitive in design and actually represent more complex calculations than the previous example.

The challenge here is to assess the performance of an institution in reducing criminal assaults cumulatively over a number of years.  The top KPI represents performance for 2006 and the bottom for 2007.  The Desired Result is stated in terms of the number of assaults per population of 1,000, the strategic Goal is to reduce assaults by 5% over a four year period, so the tactical Objective is to decrease the percentage by 1.25% each year.  A Target Expression is used to calculate the Target value (labeled as “Goal”) applying each year’s percentage reduction to the previous year’s Target value thus producing a progressively aggressive Target.

The Actual Result produced by the Business Process is calculated by a Result Expression and expressed as a Result value (labeled “Value”).  For 2006 the Result is 0.9892 and the Target is 0.9875, which is 1.25% less than the Target for 2005.  This performance is assessed as “Average” by the Status Expression and banded with a yellow Status indicator (the middle yellow segment of the dial icon).  The Trend is downward, i.e. there were fewer assaults in 2006 than in 2005, and thus the Trend indicator (the arrow) is pointed downward, and this is better than the previous period (2005) so the Trend indicator arrow is green.  This is an example of a “Decreasing is Better – Actual Values” type of KPI.

In 2007 the Target is decreased to 0.9765 per 1,000 population, making the criteria for the “Good” and “Average” performance bands more stringent to meet.  In the bottom KPI we see that the Actual value is 1.0648 thus pushing the Status indicator into the “Poor” band (the right-hand red segment of the dial icon) and causing the Trend indicator to point upward, because of the increase in Actual value and turn red because of the increase in percentage, calculated by the Result Expression, over the 2006 percentage.

Figure 17. An example of a “Decreasing is Better – Actual Values” type of complex KPI.

2.1-17 Complex KPI together

The Trend icon is an example of the use of one graphic icon to display two measurements.  The direction of the arrow indicates the direction of the Trend, up or down, and the color indicates the judgment of that direction expressed, green for “Good” and red for “Poor”.  This can be confusing if not explained.  Also the use of color alone to indicate a state of performance means that about 10% of the adult population cannot discern its meaning because of color blindness.  The example above is used to illustrate a concept not necessarily to indicate best KPI display practices.

Scoring Patterns and Banding Methods

The Scoring Pattern of a KPI (as seen above) indicates whether it is better to have a Result that is increasing, decreasing, or as close to the Target as possible, without being either higher or lower.  The table below describes the three KPI Scoring Patterns.

Scoring Pattern

Assessment Criteria

Increasing is Better In general, the greater the value of the Result the better.  Usually if the Result is greater than the Target it is considered to be a positive condition.  For example, under most circumstances it is considered better to have increasing revenue.  KPIs assessing revenue topics are generally banded as “Increasing is Better”.
Decreasing is Better In general, the less the value of the Result the better.  Usually if the Result is less than the Target it is considered to be a positive condition.  For example, under most circumstances it is considered better to have decreasing costs.  KPIs assessing cost topics are generally banded as “Decreasing is Better”.
Closer to Target is Better In general, the closer the Result is to the Target the better.  Usually if the Result is exactly the same value as the Target it is considered to be a positive condition.  For example, under most circumstances meeting headcount targets as close as possible in a given period is considered better than either hiring too few people or hiring too many people.

The Banding Method determines if actual values, normalized scale values or some other method is to be used to arrive at the Result value and Target value.  Banding Method however does not determine how many bands are used.  Many KPIs use three scoring bands because it is the simplest way to convey the relationship between a Target Expression and a Result Expression.  The table below describes three KPI Banding Methods.

Banding Methods

Assessment Criteria

Actual Values Banding is done using the quotient of the Actual value divided by the Target value which is referred to as the Score.
Normalized Actual over Target Banding is done using a Function that returns a normalized value between -1 and 1 where 1 is interpreted as “Result is very good” and -1 is interpreted as “Result is very bad”.
Stated Score An advanced technique where stated scores may be systematically substituted for Actual and Target values.


In this article we have attempted to show a way to extend the data architecture of business plans from the Ends and Means of the Business Motivation Model[viii] all the way to the Key Performance Indicator, a widely used Assessment tool for determining the success or failure of those plans.

[i]  “Business Motivation Model, Version 1.0” published in August 2008 by the Object Management Group (OMG). For more refer to .

[ii] Influencers can have an impact on other types of Ends such as the enterprise’s Vision, and other types of Means like Mission and Directive as well.

[iii] Hay, Page 187.

[iv] Hay, page 187.

[v] The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture.

[vi] See earlier references to the Perspectives of the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture.

[vii] Courtesy of  the “Boston About Results” program, Boston, MA, USA.

[viii] The Business Motivation Model, Business Governance in a Volatile World, The Business Rules Group, Copyright 2007, The Business Rules Group.

The Data Architecture of Business Plans, Part 1 – An Overview

September 28, 2013

This article was first published August 1, 2010 on The Data Administration Newsletter (TDAN) website but is no longer available there.  It is the first of a two-part series presenting a simple model for capturing the structure of the “why” aspect of the Zachman Framework.


In this article about the data architecture of business plans we will look at a standard meta-model for modeling business motivation.  From an enterprise architecture prospective a business plan is the type of artifact produced at the intersection of the Business Model perspective (row two) and the Motivation aspect (column six) of the Zachman Framework, one of the most widely recognized and referenced frameworks for enterprise architecture [i].  Since models of business motivation are of most importance to business owners, this perspective is also referred to as the Business Owner perspective and the corresponding standard meta-model as the Business Motivation Model[ii].

We will explore how the standard meta-model can be extended to support the data architecture of key performance indicators (KPIs) which are popular assessors of the measurements of business performance.  These measurements are often assessed in reference to the goals and objectives of the enterprise.  KPIs are widely used tools in enterprise performance management (EPM) scorecards, which are in turn ubiquitous components of all three types of performance dashboards:  Strategic, Tactical and Operational[iii].

The Motivation aspect addresses the question of why certain courses of action are chosen or should be chosen, why certain types of persons and organizations are important, why certain products should be more heavily invested in and why corrective actions need to be taken for others, why certain events are important, and why some locations are preferred over others.  We will take a look at the structure of the data that describe the Motivation aspect of the enterprise from the perspective of the Business Owner.  The data we will model in this article describe the entities and relationships of the data content that describes the “real world” motivations of an enterprise and thus we refer to it as metadata and the models used to understand it as meta-models.

From a Six Basic Interrogatives or 6BI[iv] point of view, when we are creating or vetting the design of a software application intended to support decision making, we seek answers to questions that will tell us “why” our client makes or should make certain business decisions and not others and “why” it is worth making the investment necessary to build (or buy) the solution we are proposing and not take another course of action.  These “why” questions are just as important to ask as questions such as “what” information do we need to make the application a reality; “who” will use the application, and “how” do we measure our success.

Business Motivation Modeling

There are three business architecture models that address the Motivation aspect of the Business Owner’s perspective of an enterprise.  These models are high level views that do not depend on any particular technology.  In developing an enterprise performance management solution we will usually begin with one or more of the following business motivation models:

  • Business Goals Hierarchy (BGH)
  • Business Opportunities Hierarchy (BOH)
  • Business Problems Hierarchy (BPH)

These are business architecture models designed to show details of the business vision and strategy of an enterprise.  In practice the level-of-detail will vary with the scope of the engagement.  If we are engaged at the top executive level then the scope is enterprise-wide.  If we are engaged at the departmental or business unit level of an organization then the level-of-detail will need to be aligned with the scope of the sponsoring department or business unit in order to deliver value to the client.  The scope of the goals, opportunities or problems determines the scope of the strategy.  There are no well defined, hard and fast criteria for differentiating one level-of-detail from another.  The levels are there as guidance to help us think more architecturally about the aspects of the business of an enterprise.

Each model depicts, in a hierarchical fashion, a different type of motivator.  Each of the business motivation models is composed of a hierarchical set of “is a kind of” relationships. One approach is to start at the top with what is sometimes referred to as the apex motivator of the organization.  For example, what is the organization’s single most important goal.  This is most often a financial goal, but with the emerging interest in sustainability and the “triple bottom-line” may now incorporate environmental and social objectives as well.

In each model, the types of motivators depicted become more specific, finer grained, and less abstract as one progresses down the hierarchy, until reaching the “leaf node” of each branch.  Another approach is to start as close to the leaf level as possible and to progress up, across and down the hierarchy all at more or less the same time.  Many business analysts advocate, for reasons we need not discuss here, that this is the only practical way to actually make progress in a constrained time frame.  In either case a hierarchy of motivators is created.

The apex business goal is the highest level, most abstract and most all-encompassing of all the business goals in the subject area of the BGH (Business Goals Hierarchy).  The apex business opportunity is the highest level business opportunity in the BOH (Business Opportunities Hierarchy) and similarly with the Business Problems Hierarchy (BPH).

Though the three models, BGH, BOH and BPH, have virtually identical structures, goals tend to be more strategic in nature, while opportunities and problems, which are more immediate in nature, tend to be more tactical or operational.  In this article we will use the Business Goals Hierarchy to illustrate the concepts behind the data architecture of business plans.

Core Business Plan Elements

Figure 1 presents the core elements of the meta-model for business plans.  Business motivation is fundamentally about four things: Ends, Means, Influencers, and Assessments.  Anecdotally, Ends are where we want to get, Means are how we get there, Influencers are people, processes and technology that can influence getting there, and Assessments are how we measure if we got there.

Figure 1. Core elements of the Business Plans meta-model.

1.1-01 Core Elements Model

Correspondingly, in our meta-model, an End is something that an enterprise sets out to accomplish.  A Means is any capability that can be called on, activated, or enforced by the enterprise to achieve an End [v].  An Influencer is anything that can produce an effect on the enterprise without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command[vi].  The effect of Influencers on Means and Ends is determined by one or more Assessments.  An Assessment is a judgment about the implications of the Influencer either with respect to one or more Means or with respect to one or more Ends.  Since an Assessment can have multiple implications, each Assessment must be composed of one or more Assessment Elements. Each of these Assessment Elements then must exist with respect to either one Means or one End [vii].

In other words, the metadata describing the data architecture of business plans also describes a re-useable template for building data models to analyze, compare and improve those plans.  Architecturally business plans must include data elements that represent the answers to the basic interrogatives that the plans are created to address.  These basic interrogatives will include: “What is the objective that is intended to be accomplished?” – the End; “How does the process work that will get the end accomplished?” – the Means; “Who are the people and organizations that influence the process?” and “What are the technologies and other processes that will get it accomplished?” – the Influencers; and, “When was or will it be accomplished, and “How closely to expectations did it turn out to be?” – the Assessments.  These are the meta-dimensions[viii] of the problem space.

Data elements that support the “When” interrogative, though not explicit in Figure 1, are very important as well, because we can accomplish our Ends through our planned Means, taking advantage of the appropriate Influencers and still fail our Assessment because the goals were not accomplished on a timely basis.


Figure 2 expands the business plans meta-model into two types of End: the Vision, which is the primary End that the enterprise sets out to accomplish, and the Desired Result, which is a state or target the enterprise intends to maintain[ix].

There are two types of Desired Result: Goals and Objectives. A Goal is a Desired Result that is a specific statement about a state or condition of the enterprise to be brought about or sustained through appropriate Means[x].  A Goal is an implementer of a Vision.  That is, where a Vision describes a future state of the enterprise in general, Goals define the steps to be taken to accomplish that Vision.  A Goal, by definition, is more narrow than a Vision.  A Vision is a broader or grander end state and cannot be specifically measured by Objectives, as a Goal can.

Figure 2. The Ends subject area in the Business Plans meta-model.

1.1-02 Ends Types Model

An Objective, on the other hand, is a statement of an attainable time-targeted and measurable Desired Result that the enterprise seeks to meet in order to directly achieve its Goals and through these, its Vision[xi].  An Objective, since it is measureable, quantifies a Goal. A Goal can be quantified by one or more Objectives, but an Objective can measure one and only one Goal.  A Measurement is a specific value expressing one state of an Objective.  An Objective can be expressed, usually serially over time, by one or more Measurements, but a Measurement expresses one and only one Objective.

Note from Figure 2 that a Desired Result can be composed of other Desired Results, thus creating a hierarchical structure.  Since Goals and Objectives are types of Desired Result, they too can have a hierarchical structure[xii].  This is the basis for the hierarchical structure of business goals in the Business Goals Hierarchy where higher level goal instances are composed of successively lower level goal instances until we reach the leaf level of atomic goals.  It should be noted that Measurements can be associated with any level of Objective and through this to any level in the hierarchy.

Business Goals Hierarchy

The Business Goals Hierarchy in Figure 3 describes Goals which the enterprise must achieve in order to accomplish its Vision.  In the BGH, Goals and Measurements are shown in the same model.  Typically Goals are depicted as orange “corner clipped” rectangles, and Measurements are depicted in the same model as yellow “corner clipped” rectangles[xiii].

Figure 3. A Business Goals Hierarchy (BGH).

BGH example

The fact that a Measurement measures one and only one Goal is an important quality control factor and provides a clear assessment vehicle for performance indicators, as we will see.  If a single Measurement is allowed to express more than one Objective and thus more than one Goal, there is no way to unambiguously trace a performance indicator using that Measurement back to the Vision of the enterprise and thus determine if it is a “key” performance indicator or not.

Of the three business motivation models (BGH, BOH and BPH) it is often advisable to start with the BGH first.  Identifying a set of business goals as the first deliverable of a workshop establishes the scope early in the process and helps assure that the client receives value for their investment from the start by identifying the Ends that the client wishes to accomplish.  It is the purpose of the BGH to capture and organize the Goals that will implement these Ends.  However it is critically important that the goals be attainable, that measurable Objectives be set for them, and that they are vetted by the organization.  There is sometimes the temptation to get the BGH over with quickly and get on with more tangible elements, but this would be a mistake.  The BGH helps us to stay on track and solve the right problems for the enterprise.  As other artifacts are developed it is always useful to go back to the BGH and ask yourself  “Does what I am doing now help to accomplish the business goals?”

Starting with the BGH can mean either discovering the business goals, through interviews, documents, or other information gathering methods, separately or in combination.  Or it could mean recording Goals that the enterprise has already identified and organizing them hierarchically.

One challenge in this process is getting participants to think “hierarchically” about business goals.  Quite often business goals are not tied together in people’s minds nor in documentation in such a way that they easily roll up to higher level business goals or roll down to lower level business goals.  Also, quite often business goals and objectives are not differentiated.  In order to facilitate an architectural approach to business we need to often disambiguate terms that are used interchangeably.  Business goals and objectives are examples of terms that need to be disambiguated in order to produce clear and executable business plans.


There are three types of Means depicted in Figure 4, another portion of the business plans meta-model.  There is the Mission which is the primary Means by which the enterprise plans to make its Vision operative; the Course of Action which is an approach or plan for configuring some aspect of the enterprise; and the Directive which is a specification that governs or constrains a Course of Action[xiv].

Figure 4. The Means subject area in the Business Plans meta-model.

1.1-04 Means Types Model

A Course of Action must be either a Strategy or a Tactic[xv].  A Strategy is the essential Course of Action attempted to carry out an enterprise’s Mission.  The enterprise Mission, being the ultimate Means, can sometimes, though rarely, be carried out by more than one Strategy, especially for enterprises as vast as national governments or international corporations.  For that same reason it is impossible for a Strategy to carry out more than one Mission[xvi].  A Tactic is a Course of Action that implements a Strategy by representing one or more details of that Strategy[xvii].  A Strategy can be implemented by one or more Tactics, but a Tactic is the implementer of one and only one Strategy.

A Course of Action can be composed of one or more other Courses of Action.  However this compositional parent-child relationship does not cross Course of Action types.  In other words, one Strategy may be a part of another Strategy, and one Tactic may be a part of another Tactic.  But Tactics are separate element types from Strategies, they are implementers of Strategy, not parts of a Strategy.

The third type of Means, the Directive must be either a Business Policy or a Business Rule.  A Business Policy is a non-actionable Directive that guides the activities of the enterprise or governs them in a general way.  It “governs”, it does not control or shape Courses of Action[xviii].  A Business Rule is a more specific and actionable constraint on the enterprise.  In particular, based on a Business Policy, it imposes a constraint on a fact or fact type[xix]. A complete look at business policies and rules includes elements that describe enforcement levels, implementations of the enforcement levels, invocations of the consequences that are the result of the enforcement level implementations, and how enforcement levels and consequences are affected by tactics.  All of which are outside the scope of this article.

A Course of Action can also enable one or more other Courses of Action.  Enabling is not the same as implementing.  For example, a tactical Course of Action of an enterprise might be “Provide unified communication capabilities (i.e. integrated voice, email, instant messaging and video conferencing) to all employees”.  This Tactic may enable the Tactic “Reduce intra-company communication delays”, which may in turn enable the Strategy “Improve company responsiveness”.  Figure 5 shows the meta-model of this relationship.  In it, the element Enablement implements a composite relationship between two Courses of Action.  One Course of Action is the enabler of the relationship, while the other Course of Action is enabled by the relationship.

Figure 5. Enablement of Courses of Action.

1.1-05 Enablement Model

Strategies and Goals

The link between an enterprise’s Ends and Means is characterized as the relationship between its Vision and Mission.  A Vision may be made operative by one or more Missions, and a Mission makes operative one and only one Vision[xx].   However most business planning activity takes place at the strategic level rather than at the mission level.   In making strategic decisions, an enterprise’s mission is often considered a constant set of values that the strategy must carry out.  With this in mind it makes sense to model the relationship between a Strategy, which is a type of Course of Action, and the Desired Results that describe it. Figure 6 illustrates this relationship. In it a Strategy may be described in terms of one or more Desired Results, each of which is either a Goal or an Objective.

Figure 6. Strategies and Desired Results.

1.1-06 Strategy & Desired Results

On the other hand a Goal, which is a type of Desired Result, may be the target of one or more Courses of Action, each of which is either a Strategy or a Tactic.  This relationship is illustrated in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Goals and Courses of Action.

1.1-07 Goal & Courses Actions

The basic takeaway here is that Courses of Action can be traced directly back to the Desired Results that motivate them.

Influencers and Assessments

To fully understand the meta-model of the data architecture of business plans it is necessary to understand not just its Ends and Means, but also with the real world things that influence them.  These we call Influencers, where an Influencer is anything that can produce an effect on the enterprise without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command[xxi].

The effect of Influencers on Ends and Means is determined by one or more Assessments, where an Assessment is a judgment about the implications of the Influencer either with respect to one or more Means (such as a particular Course of Action) or with respect to one or more Ends (such as a particular Desired Result)[xxii].

Figure 8 shows that portion of the meta-model that represents Influencers and Assessments.  We can see that an Influencer is an example of one and only one Influencer Type.  These types can be as basic as “Internal Influencer” and “External Influencer”, which tell us very little about this element, or all the way to a full taxonomy of Influencer Types, which can include all aspects of an enterprise.  Influencer Types can also be nested in a supertype-subtype generalization hierarchy.  A full analysis of influencers is well beyond the scope of this article.  We also see that while an Assessment assesses one and only one Influencer, each Assessment must be composed of one or more Assessment Elements.  Each Assessment Element, as was observed earlier, in Figure 1, must exist with respect to either one Means or one End.  

Figure 8. Influencers and Assessments.

1.1-08 Influencers Assessments

It is the Assessment Element and the fact that it may be revealed by one or more Potential Impacts on the enterprise that is the basis for the Key Performance Indicator (KPI).  Figure 9 introduces the KPI into the meta-model as a type of Assessment.  Because a KPI can be composed of other KPIs it has a reflexive parent-child relationship with itself.  Each Assessment has its own types of Assessment Elements.  Frequently encountered Assessment Elements include those used in “SWOT” analysis, such as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

Every KPI must have at least three Assessment Elements.  Target Expression, Actual Expression, and Status Expression are each a mandatory part of a KPI.  In addition it can have other Assessment Elements which are optional.  We will discuss these and other aspects of the data architecture and meta-model of KPIs in the second part of this article.

Figure 9. Assessments and KPIs.

1.1-09 Assessments & KPIs


The data architecture of business plans, also known as the Business Motivation Model, is important because it can be used to trace the results produced by Assessment Elements like Key Performance Indicators back all the way to the core motivational elements of an enterprise, its Ends and its Means.  If the chain of traceable associations from Assessments like KPIs is unbroken, it is possible to architecturally trace back to the Desired Results that motivate an enterprise’s Courses of Action to understand the rationale for the Measurements used in the Assessment Elements of Key Performance Indicators that provide the most relevant picture of an enterprise’s performance.  A refrain often heard in EPM projects is “Are we measuring the things that really matter?”  “What are the things that will make the most difference to the enterprise?” With this two part article we will show that you can verify and validate these important associations through traceability all the way to the enterprise’s Ends and Means.  In the second part of the article we will discuss how KPIs, Scorecards and Dashboards tie these elements together.

[i] I am referring to the co-ordinates of the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture, first discussed in 1987, and extended in “Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture”, J.F. Sowa and J. A. Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, 1992. IBM Publication G321-5488.   For more on the Zachman Framework please refer to the website .

[ii] Concepts in this article are based on the publications: “The Business Motivation Model, Business Governance in a Volatile World”, The Business Rules Group, Copyright 2007, The Business Rules Group, For more information refer to  This publication has since been replaced by the “Business Motivation Model, Version 1.0” published in August 2008 by the Object Management Group (OMG). For more refer to .

[iii] The view that there are three types of performance dashboards comes primarily from: Performance Dashboards: Measuring, Monitoring, and Managing Your Business, Wayne Eckerson, John Wiley and Son, October 2005. For more information see

[iv] “Six Basic Interrogatives – Parts 1, 2 and 3, .

[v] Data Model Patterns: A Metadata Map, David C. Hay, The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems, Morgan Kaufmann, 2006.  Page 277.

[vi] Hay, Page 284.

[vii] Hay, Page 287.

[viii] Please forgive me for introducing yet another term into our ever growing business and IT vocabularies, but the metamodel of a dimensional database design would contain “meta-dimensions”, would it not?

[ix] Hay, Page 277.

[x] Hay, Page 277.

[xi] Hay, Page 277.

[xii] In object oriented terminology we would say that “Goal” is a sub-type of “Desired Result” and inherits its properties, including its relationships.  In this case the relationship is an aggregation, or “part of “ relationship, with itself, creating a reflexive relationship.

[xiii] The color and symbol are arbitrary of course, but standard representations enhance readability and give the same type of artifact consistency across projects giving a type of “human resource” re-usability. After all if a consistent symbol is always used to represent the same type of thing less re-learning, is required. This also a principle of good data display, always use the same color to represent the same thing.

[xiv] Hay, Page 278.

[xv] Hay, Page 278.

[xvi] As a comment I would add  that it is often when an enterprise attempts to use a strategy to accomplish more than one mission that it loses sight of the original mission of the strategy and adds unnecessary and dangerous ambiguity to that mission.

[xvii] Hay, Page 278.

[xviii] Hay, Page 280.

[xix] Hay, Page 280.

[xx] Hay, Page 276.

[xxi] Hay, Page 284.

[xxii] Hay, Page 285.

Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 3, 6BI and Business Performance Management

August 29, 2010

In this concluding part of the article about 6BI, I will develop its analysis potential further, show how it compares with architecture frameworks, and cover how it can be utilized for traceability back to the enterprise’s mission statements in order to lend credibility to business performance management (BPM) reporting.

This part was first published in February 2005 under the title “Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 3, 6BI and Business Performance Management ” on the no longer existing website.

Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 3

In two previous articles published in, I described the Six Basic Interrogatives (6BI) Design Framework. In the first article, 6BI was described as an approach to designing databases that support business intelligence applications. In the second article I gave a very simplified example of a scenario and how instances of the business object categories can be identified, as well as introduced my color scheme. In this article I will develop the analysis potential of 6BI further, show how it compares with the Zachman Framework and other architecture frameworks, and cover how 6BI can be utilized for traceability back to the enterprise’s mission statements in order to lend credibility to BPM reporting.

The 6BI Design Framework is a pattern for designing data warehouse dimensions, but it is more than that. It abstracts all dimensions of business intelligence into the six categories of questions that a BI application user might ask. Combinations of questions from these six categories make up the requirements for the models and reports needed by management, analysts, and others within an organization to support decision making. As such, 6BI is an approach that can be used to gather and analyze requirements, and perform gap analysis between “as is” and “to be” models, as well as design the solutions to meet those requirements and close the gaps.

The six categories of the 6BI Design Framework align with the columns of the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture. The Zachman Framework has been widely accepted throughout private industry and has been adopted as a basic building block for major enterprise architecture initiatives within the U.S. Federal Government. Two of these initiatives, in response to the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, are the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) and the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF)[1].

The first three rows of the Zachman Framework are Scope, Business Model, and System Model, and represent the Planner’s view, Owner’s view, and Designer’s view of the enterprise respectively[2]. Though originally developed for private sector enterprise information systems, the framework can be (and is) applied to the DoDAF as well, where Scope aligns with Mission Statement, Business Model with Operational Architecture (OA) View, and System Model with Systems Architecture (SA) View, see Figure 1 below. I am going to show how the 6BI Design Framework aligns with both the Zachman Framework and the DoDAF, through the six basic interrogatives. This alignment shows how 6BI can be used to analyze requirements and design solutions as part of both operational architectures and systems architectures that are in synch with an enterprise’s mission.

Figure 1. Zachman Framework and DoDAF alignment.

View Zachman Framework DoDAF
Planner Scope Mission Statement
Owner Business Model Operational Architecture View
Designer System Model System Architecture View

The applicability of 6BI to requirements analysis and solution design is especially true in the area of Business Performance Management (BPM). It is true whether the business is a for-profit enterprise, a not-for-profit organization, or a government agency. The six basic interrogatives and their corresponding business object categories define the context for aligning an enterprise’s Mission Statement with its OA and subsequently with its SA.

Figure 2 shows the six basic interrogatives and the business object categories to which each corresponds. However unlike the Zachman Framework, the order of the interrogatives is significant. It has been my experience that beginning requirements activities by identifying who are the participants (animate and inanimate) that make things happen provides a sound starting point, so I typically begin with the “Who” interrogative. It is not absolutely essential that you identify all of the classes of objects in each category the first time through the framework. The initial pass is a sorting exercise[3] to categorize all of the data elements, classes, and objects to begin to discover common attributes and characteristics among and between them. It is these common elements that enable reuse at a level of abstraction above the purely technical.

Normalization across domains in shared spaces is also enhanced in this way. This means that 6BI gives you a high-level set of classifications in which to group definitions from different systems that describe common object classes. Typically I create a spreadsheet for each business object category (Parties, Products, Activities, etc.), color code[4] them so I can see at a glance which ones I am dealing with at any point, and add or remove rows as I go along. A spreadsheet can generally load most textual data with just a little manipulation and gives you a convenient way to sort and shuffle the entries. This is a working document and usually does not become a permanent artifact of the project.

Figure 2. Six Basic Interrogatives and Business Object Categories.

This is also the point at which you begin to identify the types of numbers, that is the measures and facts, that would most likely be described by the columns (or fields) of the tables you have categorized. For Parties, for example, depending on the business context, you might want to capture and aggregate numbers that derive from activities in which the parties participated, events that are responded to or initiated by the parties, locations where parties operate, or motivators that parties plan or react to. These, of course, are simple two-dimensional analyses but they form the building blocks for more complex queries which make use of more detailed or finer grained levels within each business object category in increasingly complex combinations. Remember the idea here is to provide a starting point for analyzing the source data.

In the 6BI Design Framework, Parties and Products have no direct association with each other. It is only through the other four business object categories (Activities, Events, Locations, and Motivators) that Parties and Products are associated. The left side of Figure 3 shows the relationship of Parties to Activities, Events, Locations and Motivators. The right side shows the relationship of Products to the same four business object categories. This makes sense because only when people engage in activities, exchanging and manipulating things, do frequencies, quantities, monetary amounts, metrics, and other measurements get created.

Figure 3. The indirect association of Parties to Products.

Zachman and DoDAF

Figure 4 is a view of how the corresponding concepts of the Zachman Framework and the DoDAF align with each other and with the six basic interrogatives on which the 6BI Design Framework is based.

Figure 4. Six Basic Interrogatives, Zachman Framework and DoDAF.

Basic Interrogative Zachman Framework DoDAF
Who produces the data we are going to use to measure performance? Business Model –Organizational Units and Work Products Operational Architecture –Roles and their Means to Perform Activities
System Model – Roles and Deliverables Systems Architecture –Systems and Sub-systems
What is being manipulated or exchanged to produce the measurable performance? Business Model –Business Entities and Relationships Operational Architecture –Information Items Input and Output through Activities
System Model –Data Entity and Relationships Systems Architecture –Data Elements Input and Output through Functions
How are the data values that measure performance produced? Business Model –Business Processes and their Resources Inputs and Outputs Operational Architecture –Node-to-node Information Exchange Activities
System Model –Application Functions and User Views of Input and Output Systems Architecture –System-to-system Data Transaction Functions
When does the activity take place and for how long is the performance measured? Business Model –Business Events and Business Cycles Operational Architecture –Timing and Sequencing of Activities
System Model –System Events and Processing Cycles Systems Architecture – Timing and Sequencing of System Events
Where does the activity used to measure performance take place? Business Model –Business Locations and Linkages Operational Architecture –Operational Nodes
System Model –System Components and Links Systems Architecture – System Nodes
Why do we believe the data we are using actually measure performance? Business Model –Business Objectives and Strategies Operational Architecture –Concept of Operations
System Model –Structural and Action Assertions Systems Architecture – Design Strategy and Rules

Though rarely are all six interrogatives expressed in a Mission Statement, they are expressed in the OA and the SA. It is at the operational and systems level that BPM report consumers, decision makers at different levels of an organization, need to understand the numbers they are looking at. The types of questions that need to be answered include:

Who is responsible (persons, organizations, systems, etc.) for the numbers? Who are the parties (consumers, payers, providers, sellers, agents, etc.) among whom the exchange is made? Who else (competitors, partners, etc.) participates in this exchange? What is their affinity (participant, observer, etc.) to the market place? Who (government agency, media, etc.) influences the market place in which we exchange products? Who (sellers, producers, managers, others, etc.) need to, or want to, know this information? What is their affiliation (internal party or external party) with me, the first party?

What products (goods or services) are exchanged (bought, sold, produced or consumed) that produce the numbers I am looking at? What type of work effort participated in the exchange? What events influence the exchange? What are the data elements (out of all that are collected and stored) that give me the most relevant information, at the lowest cost, in the least amount of time?

How do the activities (sales, purchases, production runs, case work, intelligence gathering, analytical activity, etc.) engaged in by parties produce the results? How does the exchange take place? What are the functions and activities engaged in? How do activities produce events that influence the numbers? How do events spawn activities that influence the numbers?

When do the events that influence the numbers take place? Which events (contact, proposal, closing, order, delivery, support call, payment, etc.) influence the numbers? Which do not? At what points in time do the influencing events take place? What events take place at given points in time? How long is the time duration of an event? How long between events? What events outside of our control correlate with the numbers? What events cause a particular event? What particular event causes other events?

Where (geographic locations, virtual addresses, etc.) did the events or activities take place? Where is the location of the events that produce the numbers? Where is the placement of the production assets? Where are the participants? What is the spatial relationship between nodes? Between nodes and other dimensions?

Why are particular pieces of information relevant? Why do particular combinations of events and activities produce the results they do? How are ends associated with means? What are the motivators (strategy, tactics, programs, initiatives, rules, etc.) that correlate with the resultant numbers?

Each of the six basic interrogatives addresses an independent category of characteristics about the problem space, yet the categories are inter-related. In fact there are specific associations between each pair of business object categories. These associations can be expressed as a set of one-to-many relationships (see Figure 3) where the “one” side is a specific business object category (e.g. Parties) and the “many” side consists of one or more of the other business object categories that depend on it (i.e. Activities, Events, Locations, and/or Motivators), but not Products. In a 6BI design, Parties and Products are associated only through a linkage with one or more of the other dimensions.


6BI is also an approach to designing and building solutions that can be traced back to the characteristics and scope of the problem domain and the mission of the organization. If the use cases and requirements are based on the six basic interrogatives, and the classes, workflows, and events that constitute the design of the component parts of the solution (i.e. the System Architecture) are constructed to address those interrogatives, a clear path from the problem space to the solution space can be described. This path takes guidance from the context of the organization’s scope and mission as also defined in terms of the six basic interrogatives. This can be a basis for validity checking the business use cases used to trace business scenarios.

In other words, the characteristics of the business and the problems that it needs to solve define how the solution needs to be constructed. Each category of the problem is addressed by specific capabilities and components of the solution. Each problem category, and combination of the categories, can be scripted in testing scenarios to exercise those features of the solution designed and constructed to address those specific categories and combinations. Requirements compliance can be traced throughout the lifecycle of a project.

When new requirements need to be met the analyst asks herself, in the discovery activities of the requirements workflow, “Have I accounted for all six of the basic interrogative categories”? If the answer is “yes” she then knows she has a comprehensive and useful framework for going forward and digging deeper for answers and solutions. The possible impact of changes on each business object category can be traced separately or together.

This type of thinking about requirements applies whether the implementation is a custom development or a packaged analytical application. As a matter of fact, 6BI can be the basis of a robust subject matter coverage analysis when evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software.

Because business intelligence, especially designing the data stores for data warehouses and other analytical and decision support systems, has progressed over the last decade and a half to where it is a mature discipline, many data architects no longer actually create uniquely designed databases directly from requirements. With the emphasis on design patterns and the availability of domain specific templates and examples, the emphasis is now on gap analysis. Gap analysis is the process of closing the gap between a given design, which can be either an industry standard, a generic model, or built into a product, and the acknowledged data requirements of the problem at hand.

The 6B Design Framework can actually provide a very thorough vehicle to facilitate this gap analysis. 6BI is a way to organize your thinking and help you to know what types of questions to ask in order to “cover all the bases” or make sure no gaps remain in the requirements analysis process. This gap analysis is especially critical in designing databases to support modern business intelligence technologies such as Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) where visibility into business processes and the atomic activities that make them up is critical. It is critical because different sets of events and activities are important to individuals and groups at different levels of an organization. The wider the scope of responsibility of an individual or group, the more aggregated and wider their reporting needs become. In order to aggregate data from more atomic and concrete levels to broader and more abstract levels, the aggregation must take place along one or more dimensions of the data. It is also critical that this visibility into the business processes be as independent of the implementation technology as possible.

The 6BI approach helps to identify these dimensions by grouping them is six distinct categories, each of which is aligned with a type of question an end user might ask about the nature of the information that they need. As questions become more and more detailed and precise within each interrogative category, a 6BI designed system allows the user to drill-down through combinations of dimensions that correspond with the types of questions asked. 6BI identifies the six fundamental business object categories that identify the dimensions of the answers to operational questions about an enterprise, its parties, its products, its activities, its events, its locations, and its motivators.


“A framework for information systems architecture” by John Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, Vol 26, No 3, 1987

“Zachman Framework Extensions: An Update” and “Rules for the Zachman Framework Architecture”, Database Newsletter, Vol 19, No. 4, July/August 1991

“DoD Architecture Framework Version 1.0”, U.S. Department of Defense Architecture Framework Working Group, 9 February 2004

[1] I like to think of this object sorting process as analogous to the Sorting Hat process that each first year student at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry must go through in the Harry Potter books.

[2] The choice of colors is purely arbitrary but I typically use red for “who”, blue for “what”, green for “how”, aqua for “when”, maroon for “where”, and violet for “why”. Proforma ProVision, used for business vision, operations and process modeling, for example, uses a completely different color scheme.

[3] DoDAF was originally called the Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Architecture Framework. It has recently undergone an update and standardization process, in response to user feedback and an executive mandate to provide common standards to improve information sharing, thus the name change.

[4] The additional Zachman Framework rows, Technology Model, Detailed Representation, and Functioning Enterprise, representing the Builder’s view, the Subcontractor’s view, and the Actual System view are not discussed in this article. The Technology Model aligns with the Technical Standards Architecture (TA) View in the DoDAF.

Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 1, 6BI Overview

August 29, 2010

This article is the first of a three part series that introduces a method for analyzing the data sources for a business intelligence solution in a framework that classifies the data entities into six (6) basic categories, sometimes called business object classes, but that I call the “Six Basic Interrogatives” or “6BI”, a term taken from journalism. Obviously a play on the common abbreviation for business intelligence, BI, as well. It is based on the familiar Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture, and thus acts as a bridge between the disciplines of Business Intelligence and Enterprise Architecture, EA. These categories are the aspects (vertical columns) of the Zachman Framework; “Who”, “What”, “Where”, “When”, “Why”, and “How”.

The article was first published in January 2004 on, a website that no longer exists, under the title “Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 1, 6BI Overview”. The article owes much not only to John Zachman, but also Dan Tasker and Len Silverston, from whom much inspiration was gained and hopefully refined in the process.

Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 1

One of the most difficult and yet most critical activities to get right when embarking on a new Business Intelligence / Data Warehousing (BI/DW) project is organizing and presenting the data requirements in such a way that they make sense to the persons responsible for designing and building the database that will support the decision support application. Two aspects of this activity make it very important.

First, when a significant amount of analytical ad hoc reporting is required, the database cannot be tuned to enhance the performance of any specific query. In ad hoc environments all the details of all queries are not known in advance (if they were it would not be ad hoc and probably of limited analytical value). Second, the people who design and build the database may not have personally participated in the often intense and sometimes contentious requirements gathering and analysis process. These two skill sets (business requirements analysis and database design) are often found in persons with different learning styles, experiences and motivation, so are quite frequently done by different individuals.

The required business performance measurements need to be identified, agreed upon and the algorithm for each defined. The available data sources that support these measurements must also be identified. Ideally the activity to identify candidate data sources will be performed in parallel with that of identifying business performance measurements. Once both of these “identifying” activities have reached an agreed upon state of completeness we then need to match the performance measurements to the data sources. That is, we need to know what are the data elements which, when combined algorithmically, produce the required performance measurements. We need to answer these questions:

Who produces the data we are going to use to measure performance?
What task, item or service is producing the measurable performance?
Where does the activity used to measure performance take place?
When and for how long is the performance of the task, item or service measured?
Why do we believe the data we are using actually measure performance?
How are the data values that measure performance produced?

These questions, or others very similar to them, form what I call the “Six Basic Interrogatives” or 6BI approach to database design for business intelligence. I use this term, borrowed from journalism, to describe a framework for thinking about what needs to go into the database to support decision making and ad hoc reporting. Which is, after all, what needs to come out of a data warehouse or decision support application for it to be useful. In other words we need to know all the factors that influence the data we use to measure performance.

To answer these questions, the structures within a business intelligence database must be designed to hold information about certain categories of business objects. These categories include:

Parties (Persons and Organizations) who produce the data we are going to use to measure performance.
Products (Goods and Services) that are represented by the data used to measure performance.
Locations (and Means of Communication) that facilitate the Goods and Services represented by the data used to measure performance.
Points in Time when the data is produced that is used to measure performance, and Durations over which the performance measures are produced.
Initiatives and Programs designed and executed to influence the data used to measure performance.
Contracts, Exchanges and Actions that represent the activities (participated in by the Parties) that produce the data used to measure performance.

These business object categories then provide the starting point for classifying the dimensions of a data warehouse database design. The design needs to allow enough flexibility to support ad hoc reporting by focusing on the basic questions that all decision support data structures need to support. However, good dimensional design also needs to address the unique decision making environment of the specific enterprise for which it is being built.

The next challenge, of course, is determining the actual measurements of performance themselves. These make up the facts or measures in the fact table that the dimensions describe. These are the data elements that, when combined algorithmically, produce the required performance measurements.

The 6BI design framework provides an approach for organizing and understanding the context of business intelligence and provides a way of classifying legacy data and meta data so that it makes sense and can be built upon. It can not and should not be followed slavishly and there are quite often data structures which simply cannot be easily classified. However, if a place to get started with your database design is what you need it can provide a platform to build upon.

In future articles I plan to discuss each of the 6BI business object categories in more detail, what you look for to identify how to classify data elements and examples from my own work experience. As the database administrator (DBA) function evolves from solely a technical expertise to more of a partner with business domain experts we will all need to quickly and effectively transform business requirements into working software solutions.

Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 2, 6BI Design Framework

August 29, 2010

This is the second part of the original three part article about the “Six Basic Interrogatives” or “6BI” for analyzing the source data for business intelligence solutions. I this part an example of how to apply the method is given.

This part was first published in March 2004 under the title “Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 2, 6BI Design Framework” on the no longer existing website.

Six Basic Interrogatives – Part 2

In a previous article I discussed a conceptual framework for designing and building databases that support business intelligence and data warehousing applications. In the article I mentioned the six basic interrogatives, borrowed from journalism, that are the basis for our thinking and subsequent design work in building databases that support the performance measurement and decision support processes. An interrogative is of course a question and our goal is to answer questions.

Six corresponding categories of business objects were identified that align with these six interrogatives. These business object categories identify the dimensions of the answers to our business questions. Our answers come from algorithms based on combinations of measurements set in a context of these business objects.

Each business object category contributes to the production of performance measuring data. All the categories together provide the different aspects one uses to analyze business performance. These business object categories therefore form the ‘6BI Design Framework’ that can be used in designing and building databases for business intelligence.

Figure 1 shows the six basic interrogatives and the business object categories they correspond to:

Figure 1. Six Basic Interrogatives and Business Object Categories.

Let’s look at a simple scenario. Alpha Corporation receives an order on 30 October 2003 on their website, for 100 units of Alpha Super Stuff from Bravo Enterprises. On 5 November 2003 the fulfillment of the 100 units is made. The payment of $1,000 USD is made on 15 November 2003, via an electronic funds transfer. Carol Daniels, the customer representative, who covers the sales territory is responsible for writing the contract for the sales process. She worked on it for one week. The activities took place in the fourth quarter of 2003. The business transaction is associated in time with an advertising campaign for Alpha Super Stuff.

Using the 6BI approach we can classify the business objects, each underlined and color-coded in the scenario above, into the categories that form the 6BI Design Framework. Let’s see how we do this:

First, Alpha Corporation and Bravo Enterprises are Organizations, a type of Party. Carol Daniels is a Person, another type of Party. This tells us who produces the data we are going to use for our performance measurements. If we are measuring performance from the perspective of Alpha Corporation we call it the first party in our example. To accommodate who produces the data we need to create dimensional entities and attributes that describe persons and organizations in our decision support data models.

Second, Alpha Super Stuff is a Product, in this case the Goods which were exchanged between Alpha Corporation and Bravo Enterprises, the second party in our example. It answers the question of what produced the measurement data. But Carol Daniels’ Work Effort also produced the data so we need to include that here as well. To describe what is produced we need to create entities and attributes that describe goods and services in our dimensional data models.

Third, the website tells us the Location of where the process was initiated, in this case in virtual space. The sales territory tells us where to Place the exchange geographically. We need to create dimensional entities and attributes to describe where the exchange occurred.

Fourth, the dates above record the Events occurring at different points in time that tell us when the exchange that produces the data occurred. The fact that Carol Daniels worked on it for one week in the fourth quarter of 2003 tells us the Duration over which some of the data is relevant. In our decision support data models we need to create dimensional entities and attributes that describe points in time and periods of time.

Fifth, the sales process (including the order, fulfillment and payment) is an Exchange between the parties and tells us how the data that we are going to use for our measurements were actually produced. The contract between Alpha Corporation and Bravo Enterprises gives us the means by which the data was produced. To accommodate this we need to create dimensional entities and attributes that describe business processes.

Sixth, the advertising campaign which is a Program, gives us an idea of perhaps why the measurement data was produced. To accommodate this we need to create dimensional entities and attributes that describe motivators in our business intelligence data models.

Lastly, the bolded items in the scenario above (100 units, $1,000 USD) are, of course, instances of the measurements themselves. In future articles I will discuss measures and how they fit into the dimensional context we have outlined by the 6BI approach. I will also discuss color coding and how it helps to document the 6BI Design Framework.


At the logical level the 6BI Design Framework forms the basis for the reuse of entities, attributes, value domains, relationships and other logical objects in our data warehouse designs. When actually implemented in software the 6BI Design Framework is instantiated as tables, columns, constraints, references and other database objects with common features across implementations and across business domains.

This ability to reuse our decision support database objects as widely as possible across many areas of business intelligence reduces the amount of discovery work that is needed for each effort. It also frees up valuable human resources to concentrate on specializing these objects to meet the requirements of specific business domains. It is, after all, the problems of specific business domains that we need to solve with our business intelligence applications, and not theoretical or conceptual problems. Our business intelligence applications can then become more and more aligned with the goals of the enterprise and produce better results faster and more economically.

Attribute Enabling

August 29, 2010

This article describes a method for designing data which allows for the adding and removing of attributes from the instances of a single entity. At the physical database level this is equivalent to adding or removing columns from a database table depending on the rows of that table, a technical impossibility. One row of the same table might have fifteen (15) columns and another row might have twelve (12) or eighteen (18) columns. The idea revolves around the concept of a generic attribute pool from which each row in a table can “borrow” additional columns as needed. These “borrowable” columns are stored in the form of key-value pairs in their own table. Sometimes the value side of the pair can have a fixed value, for example: “5”, and sometimes the value side can be a variable with a value inserted programatically. The technique is presented as a way to give flexibility to the otherwise rigid nature of RDBMS design.

The article was first published in February 2001 on the DM Review website under the title “Attribute Enabling, a Database Design Method”. As of this posting and for a few years now this site no longer exists. Since the publication of Attribute Enabling, similar design schemes have popped up in solutions such as the Trading Community Area (TCA) of the Oracle e-Business Suite Applications, and others.

Attribute Enabling

Have you ever been in a situation when the company you work for has changed its line of business? Perhaps the change is so great that an entire rewrite of a major business system is needed, or the purchase of an entirely new system is required to meet the changing business needs. If so, you are well aware of how much work this can be for an IT staff and how disruptive it can be for end users, analysts and managers, not to mention possibly customers and vendors. There are horror stories of business impacts so great that it has taken years, if ever, to recover. Unfortunately, this same disruptive process is often experienced unnecessarily when less extensive changes are required. One of the reasons why this is so is because of the static and inflexible nature of the design of many application databases. For example, suppose your company has been in the business of producing small metal parts used in the fabrication of larger and more complex electronic equipment. Each of the items you produce can be described by a set of attributes (e.g., length, width, gauge, etc.). There could be dozens (or even hundreds) of attributes describing any one item. Each item type can be described using a different set of values for these attributes or, in some cases, a different set of attributes all together. For instance, part #101 could have a length of 1 inch, a width of .5 inches and a gauge of .03 of an inch. Part #102 would, undoubtedly, have different values for these and all the other attributes that your information system uses to store a description of an item.

Let’s say that up until this time color was never a factor in the production of an item. Either all products were the same color, or color simply did not matter. Now, because of increased competition or a decision to expand the business, items will be produced in several colors along with all the other traditional attributes. Perhaps some items will have color as an attribute and others will not. This last requirement (simplified as it is) typically poses a challenge to the database designers in an IT shop. You can either add color as a new attribute to the entity in your data model that represents an item or add a new entity to include color and all the other additional attributes to the data model to create a relationship back to the “base” item entity. Either way you could be initiating far more change in your application system than at first it would appear because, as we all know, data changes have a way of propagating themselves throughout a system with a kind of rippling effect. The impact of this effect is often difficult and time-consuming to estimate and manage.

Suppose there was a way to enable a unique set of attributes to describe each specific item type. Only those attributes that apply to part #101 would be used to describe it, attributes that do not apply could be ignored saving both human and processing resources. If an attribute – for example, density – had no relevance to part #101, it would not be used to describe it. The attribute color, on the other hand, would be enabled and could have a value of “red” or “blue” or any color from the domain of allowable values for the color attribute. If, at some point, density becomes relevant to item #101, the density attribute could then be enabled for that item and a value assigned to it. If color becomes no longer relevant to item #101, the color attribute could be disabled for even more flexibility.

Attribute enabling allows this flexibility in describing products as well as customers, facilities and even specific orders by selectively “turning on” the set of attributes that describe each unique type of business object and not requiring the inclusion of “unused” attributes in the descriptions of business object types where these attributes do not apply. Flexibility is accomplished through very fine grained entity attribution. Figure 1 shows a simplified schema for attribute enabling a product line. The generic attribute pool is represented by Attribute_Header and Attribute_Detail. The header describes characteristics that are common to all attributes such as name and effective date, and the detail describes the domain of values for each generic attribute. These allowable values will almost always take two forms:a range, used to describe contiguously valued attributes, or a list, used to describe noncontiguously valued attributes. A range is used to describe an attribute such as width, where any attribute instance assigned to any specific object instance can have any one value from a contiguous bounded range of values. This characteristic of a range lends itself to, among other things, run-time calculations based on enabled-attribute values, and only the upper and lower bounds of the range are stored. A list, on the other hand, is used to describe all nonnumeric attributes such as color as well as noncontiguous numeric attributes such as identification numbers which are not used in calculations. For a list of allowable values, each discrete value is stored separately. Thus, for a range attribute, we have a relationship of one attribute header to two details (i.e., 1:2) and, for a list attribute, we have a one to many relationship (i.e., 1:N).

Figure 1: Schema for Attribute Enabling

The Product_Attribute entity resolves the many-to-many relationship between the pool of generic attributes (Attribute_Header and Attribute_Detail) and the product hierarchy (Product_Line, Product_Category and Product_Item). Note on Product_Attribute there is a “discriminator” attribute (hierarchy_descriminator) that indicates which level of the product hierarchy a particular enabled attribute is associated with. This enables the second feature of attribute enabling, inheritance.

Inheritance is the ability to associate an enabled attribute with an element higher in the hierarchy and have that attribute inherited by all or some of the lower elements in the hierarchy. Using our previous example, suppose part #101 is an item in category #23, which is a category under product line #4. The color attribute can be enabled for product line #4 and inherited by to all of its categories (including category #23) and then to its items (including part #101). Inheritance can be complete as described when a particular enabled attribute is inherited by all the categories and items under a product line, or discretionary where only selected lower hierarchy elements inherit selectively enabled attributes to give more flexibility to the schema.

Even more flexibility can be achieved when values are taken into consideration. For example, let’s say the attribute “color” is completely inherited by all the categories and items of product line #4. An impact, usually a price impact, can be associated with each value of an enabled attribute. A customer ordering a red part #101 might be charged mor, because of the price impact of the value “red” than a customer ordering a blue part #101.

There are several advantages to attribute enabling. As business conditions change, it can be used to extend the life of legacy systems by broadening the attribution of essential business objects. Once an item or a customer has been attribute-enabled, the ability to describe that object using a flexible set of attributes can be realized. Attribute enabling can be used to bridge the gap between an older system’s view of business data and a newer system’s view. Perhaps the largest benefit to attribute enabling is that it enables businesses to customize their essential business objects (i.e., products, customers and business units) to meet the changing business requirements. Imagine the benefit of enabling a sales representative to customize a product interactively with the customer by drawing on a pool of attributes and their values to offer the customer uniquely what they want. If, as Alvin Toffler1 has said we are entering an era of “particle marketing,” then attribute enabling is a technology that can meet that challenge.


1. Alvin Toffler, keynote speech, International Sybase user Group Meeting, 1994, San Jose, California.

Who Am I?

September 10, 2009
WFK headshot2 
My name is Wayne Kurtz and I am a Business Intelligence Architect and Consultant.  I have sold and delivered Business Intelligence (BI) and Enterprise Architecture (EA) solutions in both the public and private sectors in the U.S., Canada, Europe and Northern Africa for over 20 years.Before my interest in BI and EA I worked in the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) area delivering solutions to small and medium sized organizations throughout the United States.  I’ve also worked for a national retailer, a large hardware and software maker (DEC) and before my IT career I had a background in the public sector. I count as my key skills an understanding of BI and EA from both the business and technical perspectives and a belief that BI and EA are much more closely related than is often considered.  Hopefully I will be able to communicate this idea to you.  Whether you agree with it or not, I look forward to exchanging ideas with you.  Your engagement is what will make the conversation fruitful for all of us.

Currently I live in the Blue Bell, Pennsylvania area with my wife.  We enjoy golf and traveling together, have two grown children, one in Washington, DC and one in Taipei, Taiwan (formerly in Sunnyvale, California) and two grand children.  We call our endeavor “birkdale computing”.

You can email me at

Thank you for visiting my blog.